The Green Books


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The Green Books gives essential guidance for structural steelwork connections for use in buildings. They have been produced by the SCI/BCSA Connections Group, which was established in 1987 to bring together academics, consultants and steelwork contractors to work on the development of authoritative design guides for structural steelwork connections. There are two publications for use in Eurocode design, and they may be downloaded here:

[top]Simple connections

How to use the Green Book

Main article: Simple connections

SCI P358 (2014 reprint) provides procedures for designing joints in steel-framed structures in accordance with BS EN 1993-1-8[1] and its accompanying National Annex[2], and with BS EN 1993-1-1[3] and its National Annex[4]. Connections between beams and columns using non-preloaded and preloaded bolts are included. Connections between beams and hot finished structural hollow section columns using the Flowdrill and Hollo-Bolt systems are also included. Design procedures are provided for:

The revisions in the 2014 reprint include revised tying resistances for full depth end plates for deeper beams, revised resistances for RHS bases, an additional example using blind bolts, revised guidance for bracing connections and typographical corrections. Revisions are marked with a black line in the margin.

[top]Moment resisting connections

Main article: Moment resisting connections

SCI P398 provides methods for designing moment-resisting joints in accordance with Eurocode 3. The publication covers:

All connections described in procedures, examples and appendices are between I section members bending about their major axes. Nevertheless, the general principles presented here can be applied to moment-resisting connections between other member types.


  1. BS EN 1993-1-8:2005, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Design of joints. BSI
  2. NA to BS EN 1993-1-8:2005, UK National Annex to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Design of joints. BSI
  3. BS EN 1993-1-1:2005+A1:2014, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. General rules and rules for buildings, BSI
  4. NA+A1:2014 to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005+A1:2014, UK National Annex to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures General rules and rules for buildings, BSI